People Are Cities Are the Future

Published by United Nations Development Programme in 2013

Making cities more sustainable is central to global development, and it’s easy to see why. The report of the Secretary-General’s High Level Panel on the post-2015 development agenda describes cities as “engines for business and innovation,” adding that “with good management they can provide jobs, hope and growth, while building sustainability.”

Following current trends, by 2025, 65 percent of the world’s economic growth could be generated by just 600 cities. Urbanists like Alan Ehrenhalt have studied the impact of development on cities, portraying them as dynamic and diverse systems that help shape the trajectory of economic and social evolution.

People are coming together, and fast. The current influx of people to urban areas, projected to have two thirds of the earth’s population living in cities by 2050, underscores the need for improved infrastructure and social relations. The global urban slum population will increase by 6 million each year unless improvements are made. The rapid growth of cities demands an integrated approach to sustainable development that considers equality, human rights and resilience. Success hinges on partnerships between Member States, multilateral organizations and civil society—in essence putting people at the forefront of global change.

While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stresses the ideal of social justice, UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)1 require practical plans of action that consider urban spaces collectively, as well as individual systems that evolve according to local culture and custom. Maruxa Cardama, executive project coordinator of Communitas, a coalition working to holistically advance urban and rural development, is keen on seeing an urban Sustainable Development Goal (SDG): “How can we visualize an edifice of sustainable development goals where urbanization is [included]?”

Cardama refers to the set of action-oriented goals meant to build on the MDGs and converge with the post-2015 global agenda. Urban SDGs would focus on challenges unique to cities and empower actors around problem solving, including rural-urban innovations that would interlink food, water and energy sectors in a “nexus.”

People are cities and cities are the future. Community is the driving force behind urbanization. Knowing who needs what and how we can work together is essential to finding a sustainable path forward.


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into effect in January 2016, and will guide UNDP policy and funding until 2030. The SDGs consider economic, social and environmental dimensions of development, as well as good governance and multi-stakeholder partnerships.

Craig Venter, Egoist

Published by Science 2.0 Mar 29, 2011

Craig Venter is brilliant. Brilliant enough, you might say, to enter the ranks of literary gods. So brilliant, he might not even know it.

minimal-cell-craig-venter-lifeform
Image: The Minimal Cell, Craig Venter’s New Synthetic Life Form · Tom Deerinck and Mark Ellisman (2016)

Venter wants to patent the human genome—all 2.9 billion base pairs of it. And why not? The pioneering geneticist is, after all, the man responsible for sequencing it. Venter first set his sights on the intellectual rights in the 90s while president of Celera Genomics. Later, the company’s soured partnership with the publicly funded Human Genome Project served as a forecast of how genomics research might evolve as a competitive business enterprise, if the stakes ever went up. And they did.

In 2000, Celera won the genome race when Venter et al. produced a complete set of somewhere around 25,000 protein-coding genes ahead of schedule (98.5% of the projected total turned out to be other stuff). The genomics industry exploded, I got my first lab job and the rest is, as they say, history.

Since the best scientists are often the most tenacious, for Venter, decoding the recipe for humans wasn’t enough. Flash forward ten years to 2010. It wasn’t exactly the year we made contact, but Venter made history (again) when his team became the first ever to create synthetic life. I’d say that beats meeting aliens. The bacterium-based life form was fitted with four unique “watermarks”—hidden in the DNA—to keep it traceable in case it ever got out. Venter played up the new technique, going so far as to embed an email address for whomever decoded the message first. And what was the message?

Venter may have wanted something personal and meaningful to brand his progeny—something more interesting than the average security question. What was the name of your first pet? In what town was your high school located? Or better yet, an infamous world leader or influential philosopher.

Enter James Joyce. “To live, to err, to fall, to triumph, to recreate life out of life.” The memorable line from his semi-autobiography, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, was one of the four watermarks. The gesture, it turns out, wasn’t good enough; the Joyce estate is suing the scientist for copyright infringement. The irony. But this story goes beyond the typical legend and legality.

Invention, while often seen as derived solely from logic and reason, has a strong creative component as well. Venter, if he wanted, could change the code’s mappings to reveal Yeats instead of Joyce. Or Kafka or Borges or Melville (have your pick) as long as the message was identical in length. Inscribing DNA with a literary quote isn’t exactly mind-blowing from a technological view. The cultural implications, on the other hand, are nothing short of inspiring.

Venter may be the guy who gave life to man’s first bona-fide creation. But to discover a literary genre in genetic code? Now that’s a triumph.